In English, the word hospital is derived from hospitality. In recent years, medical treatment has changed from “treating physical diseases” to “treating patients” including mental health. In addition to providing the best facilities to support the diagnosis and treatment of various departments, today’s medical system also place great importance to the design of the medical environment. With the continuous development and progress of medical care, the medical system and hospital architecture must adapt to this development and evolution. However,  from our past experience that this evolution is unpredictable, because we can’t understand it before the introduction of new medical technology or new medical equipment. Therefore, in order to adapt to the future changes, the best hospital building itself must be highly adaptable, so that the hospital does not have to dismantle and rebuild the main buildings when introducing new technology and equipment.

However, we can plan similar departments into groups from the beginning of planning, for example, set up “high-tech” departments and “non-high-tech” departments separately. When combining, we must ensure the contact and distance of corresponding departments, concentrate “high-tech” in several areas, and concentrate “non-high-tech” in different areas. In this way, the emergency department, outpatient department, inpatient department and medical technology department, The administrative department, security system and hospital management departments can be updated or expanded according to their own needs in the future, which greatly reduces the variability, difficulty and investment cost of the hospital.

Another important factor affecting the design of medical architecture is the medical environment. In North America, experts have studied the impact of the environment on patients for many years. They found that if patients can see the outdoor landscape from the ward, the need for painkillers will be reduced by 30%, and the recovery speed will be increased by 30%. The study also found that the recovery time of patients in the single bed ward is also faster, so the proportion of the number of single bed wards has an increasing trend. Therefore, the effect of medical treatment often depends not only on medical means, but also on the medical environment. We should change the constrained, isolated and painful space of traditional hospitals into an open, free and comfortable space; Change the lack of privacy in traditional hospitals into the protection of privacy, so as to eliminate the uneasiness of hospitals. Let the hospital provide a comfortable environment so that patients can develop stronger immune system to cure the disease, even if it can not be completely cured, they can recuperate quietly.

In addition, medical staff and visitors should be placed equal attention, and their mental and physical health also has an impact on patients. Appropriate decoration, greenscape, waiting and leisure facilities can reduce the fatigue of medical staff and the tension and anxiety of visitors. For example, in the floor planning, the waiting area for family members is designed close to the operating room, which is not only convenient to communicate with family members in case of special needs during the operation, but also takes into account the anxiety of family members, so as to avoid that family members often gather at the door of the operating room, making it crowded and difficult to manage.

Nowadays, the development trend of modern medical technology has created a larger medical complex, and it is necessary to organically integrate various complex facilities. In addition to using various types of signs, large hospitals should have clear route structure and convenient transportation to avoid the anxiety of patients and their families in finding a way, and form a pleasant convalescent community. Therefore, we can learn from mall uses atrium street for connections to various hospital departments, as a huge trunk or backbone. In the traditional hospital architecture, different departments are divided into different parts. In the atrium hospital street, when you enter the hospital, the whole hospital department has a direct visual connection with the transportation links, such as public elevators, from which people can easily find their destination. However, the advantage of atrium hospital street is not just connection. It is actually more economical to set up an atrium, because it actually only moves the roof on the ground floor to the top floor, and simplifies the outer wall around the atrium into an inner wall. More importantly, this will transform a hospital into a community, where there are convenience stores, flower shops and cafes where people can rest and communicate with each other.

At present, we are at the beginning of a new generation of hospitals. We should TOTAL DESIGN medical buildings to support medical staff to help patients.

英文中Hospital(医院)一词是由Hospitality(亲切待人)衍生而来。 近年来,医疗由单纯的“医治身体上的疾病”向包括精神上的护理“医治患者”而转变。  除了提供最佳的设施支持各部门诊疗,当今的医疗系统对医疗环境的要求也非常重视。

医学不断发展进步, 医疗系统与医院建筑必须适应这种发展与演变。然而从我们过去的经验得知, 这种演变是难以预见的, 因为不管是新的医疗技术还是新的医疗设备, 在引进之前我们对其无法洞悉。  因此了适应未来的变化, 最佳的医院建筑本身必须是可变性的,使得医院在引进新技术与设备时不必拆建主要建筑节省建造成本。

如果我们从规划初始便将同类的部门规划成组,例如将“高科技”部门与“非高科技” 部门分别集中设置, 组合时必须保证相应部门的联系与距离,把“高科技”集中在几个区域,另将“非高科技”集中在不同的区域, 如此一来急症部,门诊部,住院部,医技部,行政部,保障系统与院内管理等部门便可以根据未来各自所需分别更新或扩建,使医院的可变性难度与投资成本都极大地降低。

另一个影响医疗建筑设计的重要因素是医疗环境。在北美,专家们将环境对病人的影响进行了长年的研究。他们发现, 如果病人可以从病房看到室外的景观, 所需要的止痛药将减少百分之三十, 而康复速度也将提高百分之三十。  研究并发现,患者在单床病房痊愈的时间也较快,所以目前单床病房的数量比例有增大的趋势。因此医疗的效果往往不仅取决于医学手段, 医疗环境与病人有直接的关联。我们应将传统医院的拘束,隔离,痛苦的空间改为开放,自由,舒适的空间;将传统医院缺少隐私改为保护隐私,消除医院的不安感。让医院提供舒适的环境使患者能激励自己的力量治愈疾病,即便不能完全治愈也能安静地疗养。

另外医护人员和探访者也应给予同等的重视, 而且他们的心身健康对病人也有所影响。 适宜的装饰,绿化以及等待,休闲的设施,可减轻医护人员的疲劳和探访者的紧张焦虑。例如在平面设计时便将家属等候区设计靠近手术室既便于手术过程中如有特殊需要时与家属沟通,也照顾到家属焦虑的心情,以免家属往往聚集在手术室门口使其拥挤与难以管理。

当今现代医疗科技的发展趋势造就了更大规模的医疗综合体, 并需要将各种复杂的设施有机地融为一体。除了利用各种类型的标志,大型医院应该路线结构清晰交通方便,避免病人与家属寻路的焦虑, 而且要形成一个宜人的疗养社区。因此我们可以借鉴mall将中庭式的医院街连接各个部门犹如一个巨大的躯干。在传统的医院建筑中, 不同的部门被分割在互不相见的部位, 而在中庭式医院街中, 步入医院, 整个医院部门与交通联系例如公共电梯等都有直接的视觉联系,从中人们可以轻易地找到其目的地。然而中庭式医院街的优点并不仅是连接。设置一个中庭其实更为经济, 因为它实际上仅是将底层的屋顶移至顶层, 并将中庭周围的外墙简化为内墙。更为重要的是, 这将使一个医院衍变为一个社区, 在这里有便利店,花店,与咖啡厅人们可以相互休息与交流。

目前我们正处于新一代医院的开端, 当为医疗建筑设计一个全面圆满的空间, 支持医护人员帮助病患。

2019年12月20日 上海